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  • Religion
  • Gods
  • Seth

  • Seth TitleGod of the Deserts
    Prince of Darkness
    Cult CenterAvaris
    ConsortSister Nephthys
    SiblingsNephthys, Isis and Osiris
    Sons and DaughtersNone
    Patron - DominionDesert - infertility - thunder
    AppearanceMan with the head of a Seth animal with two horns and a tail
    Red hair, the color of the desert and of destruction
    Historical Developments- Seth was the god of the desert worshipped in Lower Egypt, he was viewed as immensely powerful god
    His main appearance is an unknown animal with square ears and a forked tail, often called simply the "Seth-animal,"..
    - in the Legend of Osiris, he murdered his brother Osiris, then battled with his nephew Horus to be the ruler of the living.
    This myth reflects ancient historical events, the struggle between Upper Egypt (the region of Horus) and Lower Egypt (the region of Seth) in order to control Egypt during the Early Dynastic Period
    Once the two lands were united, Seth and Horus were often shown together crowning the new pharaohs, as a symbol of their power over both Lower and Upper Egypt
    The struggle between Seth and Horus was viewed by Egyptians as a struggle of power between divine gods, there is no ancient text depicting Seth as a demon or an evil force that has to be destroyed, he embodied the principle of hostility but not of outright evil
    Additionally Ra acknowledges he is a necessary force in the universe, that of strength and violent force, by awarding him the post of guardian of the boat of Millions of Years to Seth after the kingship is given to Horus, because Seth is the only one strong enough to do it.
    - During the Second Intermediate Period the foreign Hyksos invaded Egypt, and ruled the Delta, from Avaris, they chose Seth as their chief god.
    Demonization of Seth- The founder of the 19th Dynasty, Ramses 1 came from a military family from Avaris with strong ties to the priesthood of Seth. Pharohs of that period such as Seti 1, Seti 2 and Setnakhte, adopted Seth as their patron god
    - However during the development of the early Hebrew religion by Moses, whose main enemies were Seti 2 and Setnakhte, the ancient god of the desert was conveniently demonized and converted into the Hebrew Satan, while the Pharoahs enemies the Hebrews, who at that time embraced the cult of Seth, became devil worshipers. Throughout the Torah of Moses, Satan (Seth) challenges God (Amun-Ra) to test the true loyalty of his followers
    The adversary Pharaohs Seti 2 and Setnakhte represented Seth (Satan), and became the kings of bondage and slavery, binding the people and keeping them captive under his power and control. the word "satan" in Hebrew originated meaning "adversary"
    - The pig was a sacred taboo in Seth's cult, became an unclean animal in the new Hebrew religion
    - Since the new Hebrew cult was closely related to the powerful cult of Amun, Egyptians became influenced by this idea, and finally accepted Seth as a symbol evil
    By the 22nd Dynasty, Seth was equated with his old enemy Apep his cult was was disbanded by a wave of percecution, and his images on temples were replaced with other gods, and his defeat by the sun god Horus (infant Jesus) widely celebrated.
    Greek equivalentGreek Typhon
    Hebrew Satan
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