• Religion
  • Gods
  • The Four Sons of Horakhty (Horus the Elder)

  • Four Sons Of Horus TitleThe Four Mummiform gods
    FatherHorus the Elder (Horakhty)
    MotherIsis, Horakhty' original wife in early mythologies, was usually seen as their mother.
    Patron - DominionProtectors of the four Cardinal Points
    Appearancehuman figures with different heads depicted in canopic jars
    Cult- These four Mummiform gods main task was to protect the canopic jars that held internal organs of the deceased after the mummification of the body
    - In the Osiris Myth, the four gods were rescued by the crocodile god Sobek, by the orders of Horakhty
    - These jars were originally were made of baked clay with simple stoppers of mud, but developed with time into stone sculptures showing the protectors at the jar top.
    - Anubis gave them funerary duties of mummification, the Opening of the Mouth, the burial of Osiris and all men.
    - Horakhty made them protectors of the four cardinal points (north, south, east and west)
    - They attend the judgment of the deceased in the Hall of Maat where they stand before Osiris on a half opened blue water lotus.
    - Each son was protected by a goddess.
    1. Imsety

      God Imsety

      • Imsety's jar held the liver - Since the liver was thought of as the seat of emotion, a broken heart was the form of death attributed to the deity. Thus the name of this deity became the kindly one, which is Imsety in Egyptian.
      • Guardian of the South
      • Protected by the goddess Isis
      • Appearance human headed - Because the Egyptians saw the liver as the seat of human emotion, the depiction of Imsety was of a mummified human.
    2. Hapy

      God Hapy

      • Hapy's jar held the lungs - Since drowning was the form of death associated with the lungs, the deity gained the name geese, in reference to floating on water, and later gained the name runner, in reference to river currents.
      • Guardian of the North
      • Protected by the goddess Nephthys
      • Appearance - baboon-headed mummified human
    3. Duamutef

      God Duamutef

      • Duamutef's jar held the stomach - In war the most significant cause of death was from injuries in the torso and stomach. The deity protecting this organ was associated with death by war, gaining the name Duamutef meaning adoring his motherland
      • Guardian of the East
      • Protected by the war goddess Neith.
      • Appearance - jackal headed
    4. Qebehsenuef

      God Qebehsenuef

      • Qebehsenuef's jar held the intestines - this organ was used in sacrificed animals, by soothsayers, to predict the future, whereas the intestines were also the victims of poison. With death by poison, the canopic jar deity was given the name Qebehsenuf meaning the poisoner.
      • Guardian of the West
      • Protected by the poison goddess Selket
      • Appearance - falcon headed