Comparison between Egyptian viziers and French Dauphins
|Criteria||Egyptian Vizier||Dauphin of France|
|Access to Power||- The vizier was appointed by the Pharaoh,
- - He was not a heir to the throne, or a relative of the Pharaoh
|- The title of Dauphin was automatically conferred to heir of the French throne|
|Blood Line||- Throughout Egyptian history, the viziers were the Pharaoh's most trusted allies and consultants, but were not of Royal blood,
- Royal family members, particularly those who might hold a claim to kingship, could often not be trusted. But viziers where trusted by the Pharaoh to carry out his will without the fear of revolt.
|- Royal blood - The son of the French King|
|Duration of office||- Viziers often held their office according to the will of the Pharaoh
- Sometimes the remained in office during the reign of more then one Pharaoh, particularly within a single Dynasty
- In few occasions they were elevated to Pharaohs, such as Ay, who succeeded Tutankhamen
|- Dauphins held their title until the accession to the throne of France, upon the death of a king.|
- The position became very important in the Middle Kingdom, while Nobility lost it's influence
- In the New Kingdom there were two viziers - one for Upper Egypt and one for Lower Egypt.
- The position lost much importance in the Late Kingdom
|- The first French prince called le Dauphin was Charles 5, upon his father's succession to the throne in 1350
- In 1461, Louis 11 united the Dauphine with France, bringing it permanently as a French province.
- The title was abolished by the Constitution of 1791, which made France a constitutional monarchy
|Responsibilities||- The Egyptian Vizier was a very important position with a full range of powers
- He was the chief minister of Egypt answerable only to the Pharaoh
- They held the fabric of Egypt's administration system together
- At various times, the vizier was also the High Priest
- All government documents used in Egypt had to have the seal of the vizier in order to be considered authentic and binding
- Viziers resolved all domestic territorial disputes, controlled the reservoirs, food supply and supervised industries .
- Overseeing the daily functioning of Pharaoh's palace and the protection of Pharaohs
- Young members of the royal family often served under the vizier to receive training in government affairs.
|- the Dauphin was personally responsible for the rule of the Dauphine province, which was originally a part of the Holy Roman Empire
- The Dauphine frequently suffered from anarchy, since the Dauphins were in many cases minors
|Clothing||- In Egyptian art, viziers are usually depicted wearing a long robe which came up to the armpits. The garment of pure white material symbolized impartiality.||- A Dauphin of France would unite the coat of arms of the Dauphine, which featured Dolphins, with the French fleurs-de-lis.|