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  • Science
  • Egyptian Mathematics

  • Comparison Between Egyptian and Indian Mathematics

    CriteriaEgyptian Mathematics Ancient Indian Mathematics
    ImagesEgyptian Mathematics Indian Mathematics
    Achievements Evidence of some mathematical knowledge, but contribution to modern arithmetic only evident in the Ptolemaic Period
    1. 3200 BC -Hieroglyphic script and counting on stones
    2. 2700 BC -The earliest fully developed base 10 numeration system.
    3. 2700 BC -Precision Surveying in Giza pyramids a remarkable feat of engineering
    4. 1800 BC -Moscow Mathematical Papyrus, formula for volume of frustum
    5. 1800 BC -Hieratic numerals drawn on papyrus
    6. 1650 BC -Rhind Mathematical Papyrus - geometry, algebraic equations and arithmetic series
    7. 1300 BC -Berlin Mathematical Papyrus - 2nd order algebraic equations
    8. 280 BC -Ptolemaic Period, Euclid excelled in plane geometry, His most popular work, Elements, is one of the most successful textbooks in the history of mathematics. Within it, the properties of geometrical objects are deduced from a small set of axioms, thereby founding the axiomatic method of mathematics
    Major contributions to the development of modern mathematics
    1. 400 BC -Decimal notation of numbers used universally today
    2. Trigonometric functions of sine and cosine
    3. 528 A.D. - Aryabhatiya calculated the value of Pi at 3.1416
    4. 628 A.D. - Brahmagupta discovered one of the most important concept in all of mathematics, the numerical zero and negative numbers
    5. 1350 A.D.- The floating point system in Kerala School of mathematics
    Number System
    - Systems were not well suited for arithmetical calculations, addition of numerals was quite satisfactory, multiplication and division were essentially impossible.
    - Since trade required dealing with fractions, multiplication and division, Egyptians devised methods of multiplication and division which only involved addition.
    - Hindu-Arabic numerals are considered an important milestone in the development of mathematics.

    Numeral Hieroglyphs

    Numeral Heiroglyphs

    1. Developed in 3200 BC (Early Dynastic Period) and carved in stone
    2. 7 Symbols
    3. For example 5120 is written as 5120
    4. The higher number is written to the left of the lower number
    5. Where there is more than one row of numbers reading starts at the top.

    Hieratic Numerals

    Hieratic Numerals

    1. 36 Symbols
    2. No positional system - numerals could be written in any order.
      For example 5120 is written as :
      5120 or 5120
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