Comparison Between Egyptian and Incan Mummies
|Criteria||Egyptian Mummies||Incan Mummies|
|Social Status of Mummies||- After death, the Pharaohs of Egypt usually were mummified and buried in elaborate tombs.
- Nobles and officials also often received the same treatment
- Very few common people afforded the costs of mummification.
|- Common people - No clothes or jewelry to indicate a high social status|
|Reasons for Mummification||- Preservation of the physical body was paramount, for without a home, the soul wandered and would be lost forever.
|Animal Mummification||The sacred bulls from the Early Dynasty had their own cemetery at Saqqara.
- Baboons, cats, birds, and crocodiles, which also had great religious significance, were sometimes mummified, especially in the Late Kingdom
|- No animals mummies were found|
|Making of a Mummy||- Mummies were made by embalming - this process varied according to the social status of the deceased.
||The mummified rulers were most likely artificial mummies, although the methods the Incas are unclear.
- Sacrificed people were mummified by the freezing temperature and the dry, windy mountain air, so they were natural mummies
|Funeral||- The mummy and its canopy jars were transported by sled from the embalming tent to the tomb
- At the site of the tomb, religious ceremonies were held to prepare the dead for the afterlife
|- unknown religious rituals|
|Preservation||- The best preserved mummies are those of the Pharaohs and their relatives. These mummies tended to be more carefully embalmed and protected from harm.
- By the time of the New Kingdom the art of embalming had reached its height, and it is possible to determine fairly accurately how the great Pharaohs appeared in life, such as Amenhotep 2, and Thutmose 3, Thutmose 4, Tutankhamen, Seti 1, and Ramses 2
|- Found in excellent condition, some have their internal organs intact and in good shape.
- Some are so well preserved that a CT-scan revealed that all of their internal organs are intact and in good shape, as if they had just died last week instead of approximately 500 years ago.
- Compared to the Egyptian mummies, more information is available such as diet and illnesses, since their internal organs are preserved.
|Timeline||- The oldest-known Egyptian mummy, dates from 3500 BC
- Egyptians stopped making mummies in the 5th century A.D., when many Egyptians became Christians. But it's estimated that, over a 3000 year period, more than 70 million mummies were made in Egypt.
|- Mummies made during the reign of the Inca empire which lasted for 100 years, from 1438 to 1532|
Video: Ancient Egyptian Mummification
The Mummification Process The entire process took 70 days to complete. Several embalmers conducted the task in the special embalming shop or per nefer. The chief embalmer was known......