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  • Religion
  • Gods
  • Amun

  • Amun
    Amun the God
    Amenmesse (Moses)
    Amun the Ram
    Amun the Ram
    TitleThe Hidden One
    King of the gods
    Sun god
    Other spellingsAmun
    Cult CenterThebes
    Sons and DaughtersKhonsu, the moon god
    Mentu the war god
    Holy TriadAmun. Mut and Khonsu formed the Thebes Triad
    Patron - Dominionprotector of Egypt - fertility - wind
    Dedicated templesKarnak temple
    AppearanceMan with a ram-head
    Ram with curved horns
    Man wearing an ostrich plumed hat
    A man with the head of a frog
    Historical Development- Amun was originally a local god from Thebes of minor importance, his name in ancient Egypt meant "the hidden one"
    - He was regarded in Thebes among the gods of the creation of the world.
    - The sacred animal of Amun was originally the Goose, and was sometimes known as the "Great Cackler". Later he was more closely associated with the Ram, a symbol of fertility
    - His importance was magnified during the reign of the Thebean families of the New Kingdom
    During the New Kingdom Amun was combined with the most important sun god Ra and became even more powerful. He was then renamed Amun-Ra
    From that time onwards, the worship surrounding Amun-Ra represented the most important theology in Egypt, which spread to the rest of the world
    Amun the "Hidden" god, combined with Ra the sky god, became the ultimate god: "Hidden in the Sky"
    Slowly over time Amun began to absorb many other local gods, becoming the great representative deity of Egypt, who combined the attributes of all other gods.
    The ultimate purpose was to raise his cult over the cult of any other god, so the more gods melted into his personality, the more powerful the imperial religion was.
    This led to the development of an early form of monotheism, the other gods do no longer appear independent, but they all enter a constellation with the "one god", they became Angels
    The only other god which retained his power was Osiris, Amun-Ra could not sneak into the realm of the underworld
    Early Hebrew Religion
    - By the end of the 19th Dynasty Moses, fled from the armies of Pharaoh Setnakhte in the Epic Exodus
    - Moses being a follower of the cult of Amun-Ra, started to develop a new religion based on the same cult, while adding new elements of monotheism. to the general concept
    - The general idea of the Creation Myth was kept to it's established concept, while removing the role of any secondary gods in the myth, hence creation of the world was attributed to only one god
    - The first texts acknowledges the existence of other gods, but claimed that the Lord is the strongest, eventually these other gods were removed completely, Exodus
    - Circumcision continued to play an important role in religion, scholarly evidence indicates that this practice, represented a sign of affiliation to the cult of sun god Amun-Ra. The Egyptian cosmology myth suggests that Amun-Ra mutilated his genitals in some way. From Classical Greek sources, we know that the surgery appears to have been a privilege of the priestly castes
    - The 10 commandments of Moses are based on chapter 125 in the Egyptian book of the dead:
    I have not done evil to mankind.
    I have not oppressed the members of my family.
    I have not wrought evil in the place of right and truth.
    I have had no knowledge of worthless men.
    I have not brought forward my name for exaltation to honors.
    - I have not ill-treated servants.
    I have not belittled a god.
    - I have not defrauded the oppressed one of his property.
    I have not done that which is an abomination to the gods.
    I have made no man suffer hunger.
    I have made no one to weep.
    I have done no murder.
    I have not given the order for murder to be done for me.
    I have not inflicted pain upon mankind.
    I have not committed fornication.
    I have not encroached upon the fields of others.
    I have not carried away the milk from the mouths of children.
    I have not driven away the cattle which were upon their pastures.
    I have not obstructed a god in his procession. I am pure! I am pure! I am pure! I am pure!

    - The consumption of pork was forbidden due to the fact that the priests of Amun considered pigs to be unclean, therefore unhealthy. Most classes in ancient Egypt ate pork, but priests of Amun avoided touching a pig or eating pork, this concept was copied into the new religion of Moses and applied to all followers, not only the priestly castes
    - The rams were held sacred to Amun in ancient Egypt and were not killed. But once a year at the festival of Amun they killed a ram, skinned it, and clothed the image of the god in the skin. Then they mourned over the ram and buried it in a sacred tomb.
    This custom was copied into the new Hebrew religion as The sacrifice of the Passover Lamb, while adding new elements into the story but keeping the tradition
    - The virtues of other gods were now completely absorbed into the identity of the "Hidden One", while some of them retained their supporting roles as Angels and messengers.
    Seth, the patron god of Seti 2 and Setnakhte, who were Moses direct enemies in the late 19th Dynasty, was conveniently demonized. The evil enemies of the new Hebrew emerging religion where followers of Seth (Satan).
    Christianity- After the development of the Hebrew religion, the first true monotheistic religion in the world, there was only one other god left in Egypt and the Middle East, which resisted all previous attempts of absorption Osiris
    The powerful cult of resurrection and afterlife was a major challenge to achieve total dominion for the cult of Amun
    - Finally Christianity overcame this challenge, Amun finally absorbed Osiris and his triad son Horus and wife Isis, into the trinity of the "Father" , the "Son" and "The Holy Spirit", while Isis is reduced into the human "Virgin Mary"
    In fact the main reason for the final triumph of monotheism over polytheism, was the successful absorption of Christianity, of the Osiris cult involving the passion and resurrection
    The 3 Heavenly Religions- After 3500 years of it's emergance, the basic concept of the cult of Amun-Ra has remained unchanged "The Hidden god in the Sky",
    - This powerful cult is followed by a large percentage of the world population today, and is the source of the ending to Christian, Jewish and Muslim prayers - Amun
    - But did the democratic distribution of power amongst 2000 Egyptian gods, provided a better spiritual comfort that the dictatorship of this hidden God?
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