Comparison Between Egyptian and Greek Taxation
|Criteria||Egyptian Taxation||Greek Taxation|
|Tax System||Taxation was a fact of life for all Egyptians throughout history.
- Egyptians had to contend with heavy taxes that included levies on cattle, grain, and payment in various kinds of human labor
- Taxes were regularly imposed for every harvest, and at any other time the Pharaoh saw fit
- One person from every household was required to pay a corvee or labor tax by doing public work for a few weeks every year
- The corvee was a system of forced, unpaid state service, exacted of the peasants for specific tasks such as construction and maintenance of roads, irrigation canals, the erection of large buildings, temples, pyramids, army duty and mining. This was a forced form of taxation to the central government.
- Examples of ancient complaints about taxes have survived
- The vizier controlled the taxation system through the departments of state.
- The departments had to report daily on the amount of stock available and how much was expected in the future.
- Royal charters of immunity from taxes are documented as early as the Old Kingdom
- The Priests and the property of temples ? often themselves funded through tax revenues, received immunity from taxes, including immunity from compulsory labor.
|- Taxation was not well-developed in ancient Greece
- Liturgies were solely imposed to the extraordinary wealthy and considered something to be proud of.
- There are numerous examples of individuals that engaged into them voluntarily as well as others who exceeded the funds that were obliged to present by the state.
Imposed on the poor and given to the rich:
- A major part of the levies imposed on the people was used by the Pharaoh, the Nobles and the temples
|Imposed on the rich and used for public benefit:|
- The eisphor was a tax on the wealth of the rich, but it was levied only when needed ? usually in times of war.
- Large fortunes were subject to taxation in support of public works.