• Geography
  • Thebes City

  • thebes
    Thebes Statue
    Location Upper Egypt - 800 km south of the Mediterranean
    East bank of Nile
    Nome4th nome of Upper Egypt The sceptre - the 4th Nome of Upper Egypt
    Type of SettlementCapital City
    NecropolisValley of Kings - the necropolis where the Pharaohs and nobles were entombed
    Local deityThe holy triad of Amun, Mut and Khonsu
    Ancient nameWaset
    Contemporary nameLuxor and Karnak now occupy parts of its site
    Historical Development
    1. Old Kingdom - a number of small settlements and a village called Waset
    2. Middle Kingdom - Mentuhotep I 11th Dynasty united Egypt and established Thebes as his capital.
      Amenemhet 1 of the 12th Dynasty moved his capital to Crocodilopolis, Thebes took the role as the religious center of the nation, as its god Amun was promoted to principal state deity.
    3. New Kingdom - Ahmose 1 18th Dynasty established Thebes as his Capital and the golden age of the city began. The city rapidly became prominent as the royal residence and as a seat of the worship of the god Amun
    4. As the New Kingdom began to decay and the locus of power to shift to the Nile Delta, Thebes went into decline.
    5. For a time in the 11th cent. BC, it was a separate political entity under sacerdotal rule. Thebes was sacked by the Assyrians in 661 BC, an event referred to in the Bible (Nah. 3.8?10).
    6. The Romans sacked it in 29 BC, and by 20 BC a Greek visitor to the site reported only a few scattered villages.
    Monuments
    1. Temple of Karnak - the most important sanctuary of the New Kingdom
    2. Luxor Temple complex - center of the Festival of Opet