Old Kingdom- a number of small settlements and a village called Waset
Middle Kingdom- Mentuhotep I 11th Dynasty united Egypt and established Thebes as his capital. Amenemhet 1 of the 12th Dynasty moved his capital to Crocodilopolis, Thebes took the role as the religious center of the nation, as its god Amun was promoted to principal state deity.
New Kingdom - Ahmose 1 18th Dynasty established Thebes as his Capital and the golden age of the city began. The city rapidly became prominent as the royal residence and as a seat of the worship of the god Amun
As the New Kingdom began to decay and the locus of power to shift to the Nile Delta, Thebes went into decline.
For a time in the 11th cent. BC, it was a separate political entity under sacerdotal rule. Thebes was sacked by the Assyrians in 661 BC, an event referred to in the Bible (Nah. 3.8?10).
The Romans sacked it in 29 BC, and by 20 BC a Greek visitor to the site reported only a few scattered villages.