Lower Egypt - overlooking the Egyptian capital of Memphis
West bank of Nile, 5 km north of Abusir
|Nome|| White fortress - the 1st
Nome of Lower Egypt
|Type of Settlement||Necropolis
|Historical Development||- The earliest burials of nobles at Saqqara can be traced back to the Early Dynastic Period
- The area became the first Royal necropolis of the Old Kingdom
- In the New Kingdom it was eclipsed as the burial ground of royalty by the Valley of the Kings,
- In the Late Kingdom and Ptolemaic Period, it regained importance as a complex for cult Apis Bull burials in the Serapeum
- Because the necropolis was lost beneath the sands for the past 2000 years, many mastabas and temple complexes have been superbly preserved, with both their structures and internal decorations intact.
- The site is dominated by the famous step Pyramid of Zoser - designed by Imhotep, and is the world's oldest standing stone monument
- The ruined Pyramid of the 5th Dynasty Pharaoh Userkaf.
- The 6th Dynasty pyramid of Teti 1, now completely ruined.
Adjacent to the pyramid are the mastabas of his officials.
The mastaba of Kagemni, a Vizier
and judge under three Pharaohs of the 5th and 6th Dynasties, has marvelous relieves showing fishermen
- The Serapeum - twenty chambers contain sarcophagi the ' Apis Bulls' from the New Kingdom down to the
- The Tomb of Shepseskaf - Unlike his immediate predecessors and his successors, he chose the form of a mastaba rather then a pyramid for his tomb
- The Pyramid complex of Pepi 1 from the 6th Dynasty, with its associated queens pyramids
- The Pyramid of Pepi 2, the last great pyramid built in the Old Kingdom.
- Merenre's complex
- Unas complex, the oldest tomb which has Pyramid Texts inscribed.
His pyramid is surprisingly small considering his long reign, rising only 52 meters above ground. Its present condition is also a disappointment, it is more like a heap of rubble, and it is only on the northern side that a few stones still stand
- The Pyramid complex of Djedkare from the 5th Dynasty, known as Haram el-Shawaf.
- The tomb of Horemheb - Built before he became Pharaoh, in a modest scale, with wall decorations showing his daily life.
The tomb was never used, hence his last resting place became the Valley of the Kings.
- The Pyramid of Ibi from the 8th Dynasty - the only pyramid constructed during the first intermediate period. His pyramid was small compared to all other completed ones, just 21 meters high. Today it is in a very ruinous state, consisting of 3 piles of limestone chips lying around the burial chamber.
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