• Geography
  • Ancient Memphis City

  • Alabaster Sphinx
    Location Lower Egypt - at the apex of the Nile Delta 18 km south of Modern Cairo
    West bank of Nile
    The modern cities and towns of Mit Rahina, Dahshur, Saqqara, Abusir and Abu Gorab, south of Cairo, all lie within the administrative borders of historical Memphis
    Nome1st nome of Lower Egypt White fortress - the 1st Nome of Lower Egypt
    Type of SettlementCapital City
    NecropolisSaqqara - the favorite burial place for Pharaohs of the 3rd and 5th Dynasties
    Giza Plateau - 4th Dynasty
    Serapeum - Galleries of tombs of the ' Apis Bulls', situated near Zoser's Step Pyramid at Saqqara
    Local deityThe Holy Triad consisted of the god Ptah, his wife Sekhmet and their son Nefertum, who was later replaced by Imhotep in 525 BC
    Ancient nameIneb Hedj - The White Walls
    Historical Development
    1. Early Dynastic Period - Founded around 3100 BC by Menes, the first Pharaoh of united Egypt.
    2. Old Kingdom - capital city of Egypt, Memphis had some 30,000 inhabitants and was by far the largest settlement worldwide
    3. Middle Kingdom - It declined briefly during the 12th and 13th Dynasties which had their Capital at Fayum
    4. New Kingdom - Memphis remained important as Lower Egypt Capital during the dominance of Thebes
    5. Late Kingdom - Became the seat of the Persian satraps, during the 27th Dynasty. When Herodotus visited the city in the 5th century BC, he found many Greeks, Jews, Phoenicians and Libyans amoung the population
    6. Ptolemaic Period - Second only to Alexandria under the Ptolemies and under Rome
    7. It finally declined with the founding of nearby Fustat by the Arabs, . It was largely abandoned and its ruins were largely removed for building in the new city and later Cairo
    1. The remains of the temple of Ptah
    2. The palace of Apries
    3. Two huge statues of Ramses 2