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  • Geography
  • Hierakonpolis

  • Hierakonpolis
    Narmer palette
    Location Upper Egypt - West bank of the River Nile, 20 kilometers north of Edfu
    Nome3rd nome of Upper Egypt The rural - the 3rd Nome of Upper Egypt
    Type of SettlementPre-dynastic Capital city
    Local deity Horus
    Ancient name Greek Hierakonpolis - the city of the falcon
    Egyptian - Nekhen
    Modern nameKom El-Ahmar
    Historical Development- It was the religious and political capital of Upper Egypt at the end of the Pre-Dynastic Period
    - The rulers of Hierakonpolis were active in the wars between Upper and Lower Egypt around 3150 BC, which were concluded with their victory and the unification of Egypt under Menes. After this event, the city retained its importance as a cult center but the capital moved to Memphis, and the city declined.
    - In the Old Kingdom, the city was replaced by Edfu as both provincial capital and religious center.
    - The city is an important archaeological site. Being the only major site of this formative time still preserved, containing houses, cemeteries, temples, industrial zones and administrative buildings

    Archaeological Discoveries

    1. The Narmer Palette - the first political document in history
    2. The famous mace head bearing the name of Pharaoh Scorpion
    3. Pre-dynastic burial sites - The bodies resembled the earliest know form of mummification, the hands and heads were wrapped with pads and strips of linen
    4. A fort built from mud-brick, with walls of 19m height
    5. The ruins of the temple of Horus - the most ancient temple in Egypt.
      - the 12 meter high structure used wooden pillars, and had 3 sanctuaries
      - in the courtyard, a single pole had at its top a symbol of the falcon
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