• Geography
  • The Giza Plateau

  • Giza plateau
    Giza plateau
    Location Lower Egypt - overlooking the Egyptian capital of Memphis
    West bank of Nile, bordering the Sahara Desert
    Nome1st nome of Lower Egypt White fortress - the 1st Nome of Lower Egypt
    Type of SettlementNecropolis
    Local deityHoremakhet - a special local form of Horus
    Ancient nameImentet (The West)
    Historical Development 1- Old Kingdom's
    3000 BC Djet of the 1st Dynasty started building his tomb in the plateau
    2500 BC Giza became an important Royal necropolis of the 4th Dynasty
    2- Middle Kingdom - the necropolis of Giza was abandoned. The pyramids were forcefully opened and plundered by thieves. The causeways and temples were even used as quarries by the Pharaohs of the 12th Dynasty.
    3- New Kingdom - the site regained considerable religious significance, and was used as for the private Mastabas of high officials and nobles of Lower Egypt. Pharaohs of the 18th and 19th Dynasties erected Stelae between the paws of the Sphinx, which was seen as an image of the sun god Harmachis
    4- Late Kingdom - Osiris became the dominant god of the area, High, massive pedestals were added to the body of the Sphinx, on which chapels of Osiris and Isis stood.
    1. The Great Pyramid of Khufu -, the only one of the seven ancient world wonders that has survived to the present day
    2. The Pyramid of Khafre - build on the highest ground of the plateau, achieving the illusion of being the tallest.
    3. The smallest Pyramid of Menkaura - the Pharaoh died before his tomb was finished.
    4. The Great Sphinx - Khafre is assumed to have been responsible for it's carving, it is aligned to his pyramid
    5. A number of small satellite edifices, known as "queens" pyramids, causeways and valley temples.
    6. A workers village - pyramid projects of this magnitude required housing that would be sufficient to house the appropriate number of craftsmen

    Photos: Giza Plateau

    1. Great Pyramid

    2. Khafre

    3. Menkaura

    4. Sphinx

    5. Plateau Periphery