• Egyptian Map and Geography

  • Map of Egypt

    Map of Egypt

    Cities

    1. Abu Simbel
    2. Alexandria
    3. Akhetaten
    4. Aswan
    5. Avaris
    6. Bubastis
    7. Denderah
    8. Edfu
    9. Elephantine
    10. Esna
    11. Crocodilopolis
    12. Heliopolis
    13. Hermopolis
    14. Hierakonpolis
    15. Kom Ombo
    16. Memphis
    17. Panopolis
    18. Philae Island
    19. Sais
    20. Tanis
    21. Thebes (Luxor)

    Necropolis

    1. Abusir
    2. Abydos
    3. Beni Hasan
    4. Dahshur
    5. Giza
    6. Hawara
    7. Kahun
    8. Saqqara
    9. Valley of Kings

    Geographical Areas

    1. Delta
    2. Nile
    3. Nubia
    4. Red Sea
    5. Sinai

    Comparison Between Egyptian and Indian Geography

    Criteria Egyptian Geography Indian Geography
    Images Egyptian Map Indian Map
    Topography
    • Very Simple geography consisting of the Nile Valley and bounded on the south, east and west by a impenetrable desert, and on the north by the sea
    • Egyptians divided the land into two types:
      1. The "black land" - fertile land on the banks of the Nile, black silt was deposited there every year after the Nile flooded.
      2. The "red land" - which is the barren desert
    • Egypt was protected from outside influences, which allowed it to evolve to a homogeneous culture with slow change over time. The Nile river flows north from the heart of Africa to the Mediterranean Sea. Its flood plain were an extensive oasis. Humans were drawn there because they could grow crops and settle into permanent villages. The annual flooding of the Nile deposited nutrient rich silt on the land, creating all the ingredients needed to support life and the growth of a civilization.
    • Complex and diverse topography - Many rivers also flowed through ancient India such as the Indus river and the Ganga.
    • The people of ancient India lived in a land of extremes encompassing desert, mountains, forest, and jungle, this resulted in a highly diversified culture with many cultural practices, languages, customs and religions
    • The Himalaya on the north protected the Indian subcontinent from foreign invasions, but the subcontinent in itself was divided internally
    Climate
    • Very dry climate with almost no rainfall on a regular basis. The people depend on the annual summer floods of the Nile River for water
    • The floods begin in June and end in October - small variations in flood levels greatly influenced the whole country and resulted in good harvests or famines - Storage of grain in central government granaries became essential for maintaining life in low floods
    • Climate varies from tropical in the south, the Thar Desert in central India and a temperate climate in the Himalayan north, where elevated regions receive sustained winter snowfall.
    Transportation
    • Only local traffic between villages makes use of land routes, which scarcely exist
    • Easy transportation by sailing in the Nile - a fusion of culture developed such as could never be achieved in countries like India with natural inland frontiers.
    • This ease of transportation resulted in a strong central and united government capable of ruling all the country easily
    • Difficult transportation and communication with many isolated regions
    • Many independent Kingdoms developed and were rarely united under a single government.
    • The subcontinent was first united under the Maurya Empire n 322 BC by Chandragupta Maurya, but this unity only lasted till 185 BC
    Human Settlements
    • Country was divided into 42 Nomes (provinces), every Nome had its capital city - The Nomes not only remained in place for more than three millennia, the area of the individual Nomes and their order of numbering remained remarkably stable:
      1. Lower Egypt, from the Old Kingdom capital Memphis to the Mediterranean Sea, comprised 20 Nomes.
      2. Upper Egypt was divided into 22 Nomes.
    • All cities and villages within the Nile Valley - main cities retained importance through entire history, although some cities were favored at certain times when ruling Pharaohs established their dynasties in their home towns, but abandoning cities was very uncommon (Akhetaten being a rare example)
    • Thousands of cities and villages emerged, flourished and declined through the whole country in river banks, forest and mountains
    • No main settlement retained importance in history, many cities and settlements where entirely abandoned, buried and forgotten (such as Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa in the Indus Valley)

    Capital Cities and necropolises

    Dynastic Period Capital City Royal Necropolis
    Early Dynastic Period Memphis Abydos
    Old Kingdom Memphis 3rd Dynasty Saqqara
    4th Dynasty Giza and Dahshur
    5th Dynasty Abu Sir
    Middle Kingdom 11th Dynasty Thebes
    12th Dynasty Crocodilopolis
    11th Dynasty Deir El Bahri
    12th Dynasty Dahshur, Hawara and Kahun
    2nd Intermediate Avaris Avaris
    New Kingdom 18th Dynasty Thebes
    19th and 20 dynasties Avaris (Pi-Ramesse)
    Valley of Kings
    3rd Intermediate 21st and 22nd dynasties Tanis
    23rd Dynasty Bubastis
    Tanis
    Late Kingdom 25th Dynasty Thebes
    26th Dynasty Sais
    .
    Ptolemaic Alexandria Gabbari area in Alexandria

    Lower Egypt Nomes

    Nome Number Egyptian Name Translation Capital
    1 Aneb-Hetch White Walls Memphis
    2 Khensu Cow's thigh Khem
    3 Ament West Alexandria
    4 Sapi-Res Southern shield Ptkheka
    5 Sap-Meh Northern shield Sais
    6 Khaset Mountain bull Xois
    7 A-ment East harpoon Pithom
    8 A-bt West harpoon Hermopolis
    9 Ati Andjeti Busiris
    10 Ka-Khem Black bull Athribis
    11 Ka-heseb Heseb bull Leontopolis
    12 Theb-Ka Calf and Cow Sebennytus
    13 Heq-At Prospering Sceptre Heliopolis
    14 Khent-abt Eastmost Pelusion
    15 Tehut Ibis Hermopolis Parva
    16 Kha Fish Mendes
    17 Semabehdet The throne Diospolis Inferior
    18 Am-Khent Prince of the South Bubastis
    19 Am-Pehu Prince of the North Avaris and Tanis
    20 Sopdu Plumed Falcon Per-Sopdu

    Upper Egypt Nomes

    Nome NumberEgyptian Name Translation Capital
    1 Ta-Seti Land of the bow Elephantine
    2 Thes-Hor Throne of Horus Edfu
    3 Ten The rural Hierakonpolis
    4 Waset Sceptre Thebes
    5 Herui The two falcons Coptos
    6 Aa-ta The crocodile Denderah
    7 Seshesh Sistrum Diospolis Parva
    8 Abdju Great land Abydos
    9 Min Min Panopolis
    10 Wadkhet Cobra Aphroditopolis
    11 Set Seth Hypselis
    12 Tu-ph Viper mountain Antaeopolis
    13 Atef-Khent Upper Sycamore Lycopolis
    14 Atef-Pehu Lower Sycamore Cusae
    15 Un Hare Hermopolis
    16 Meh-Mahetch Oryx Hebenu
    17 Anpu Anubis Cynopolis
    18 Sep Seth Alabastronopolis
    19 Uab Two Sceptres Oxyrhynchus
    20 Atef-Khent Southern Sycamore Herakleopolis Magna
    21 AAtef-Pehu Northern Sycamore Crocodilopolis
    22 Maten Knife Aphroditopolis