• Geography
  • Avaris and Pi-Ramesse

  • Avaris burials
    Avaris
    Location- The exact location of the city was long lost, but rediscovered in the 1920s
    - Lower Egypt - northeast of the Delta
    - It lies on the Pelusiac branch of the Nile, which is currently silted up.
    Nome19th nome of Lower EgyptCapital of Royal child - the 19th Nome of Lower Egypt
    Type of SettlementCapital City
    Local deitySecond Intermediate Period - The desert god Seth
    New Kingdom - Ra
    Ancient nameHatwaret
    Contemporary nameTell el-Dab'a
    Qantir
    Historical Development- Second Intermediate Period - The Hyksos built their fortified Capital city over a Middle Kingdom town they had captured.
    - New Kingdom - 18th Dynasty: Avaris was captured by Ahmose 1, who ended Hyksos rule, the city was razed to the ground in the aftermath of the Egyptian triumph.
    19th Dynasty: Avaris was reoccupied when Pharaoh Ramses 1 founded his new capital city at the old site.
    The new city called Pi-Ramesse flourished and poems were written over its splendor.
    20th Dynasty: The demise of Egyptian authority in Syria and Palestine made the city less significant.
    - Third Intermediate Period - When the 21st Dynasty established their capital in Tanis, to the north-west of Pi-Ramesse, the city deteriorated.
    - The location of the city was lost, however in 1929 the earliest phase of the town was discovered n the fields around el-Qantir, including tiles with the name of Seti 1 and Ramses 2, and a mud brick palace.
    By late 1999 an area of 75,000 m2 was excavated in the area including ancient houses, administrative quarters of a vast palace and temple compound.
    Necropolis- Excavations uncovered a Hyksos cemetery dating from the late 13th Dynasty, situated to the west of the main temple's enclosure wall.
    1. Vaulted mud brick tombs - the most prominent had a burial chamber measuring 2.7 x 1.7 meters and a single vault
    2. Simple pit burials
    3. Infant burials in large vessels
    Monuments- The Hyksos built a Canaanite-style temple dedicated to god Seth
    - Discoveries from the 19th Dynasty include the foundations of palace buildings, temples, arsenals, storehouses, stables and tombs. Pi-Ramesse spread over a vast area of about 10 square kilometers, making the city one of the largest of Egypt