• Dynasties
  • Old Kingdom
  • Snefru (Sneferu)

  • snefru Rule:4th Dynasty: 2575-2551 BC
    Predecessor:Father Huni
    Mother:his mother Meresankh 1 was a concubine
    Nomen:Birth name: Sneferu: He of beauty
    Capital City:Memphis
    Reign:- Snefru legitimized the throne by marring to his half sister queen Hetepheres, and founded the 4th Dynasty
    Foreign relations
    - He was an active military leader, his campaigns against Nubia and the Libya are recorded on the Palermo Stone. The Nubian campaign was particularly effective, bringing back 11,000 prisoners and 13,000 heads of cattle.
    - He began trade with the Mediterranean nations, He sent a fleet of forty ships to Lebanon to supply the country with timber, and erected monuments to commemorate this event.
    Construction Projects
    He built three pyramids at Dahshur, which shows the massive amount of resources and power that Snefru had at his disposal.
    - Meidum Pyramid - this pyramid was possibly started by his predecessor Huni, this stone structure is a transition from the stepped pyramid structure to that of a true pyramid structure
    - Bent pyramid - The angle of the inclination changes from 55? to 43? in the upper section. The pyramids was not initially designed to be built this way, and was modified during construction due to the unstable initial angle
    - Red pyramid. - the first true pyramids ever constructed
    Domestic Policies
    - Domestically, Snefru kept the power of the royal family absolute, and appointed the high officials from the ruling family. This explains why Snefru was able to put together the necessary materials and manpower required to construct three pyramids.
    - Under later Pharaohs, this power was divided with the nobles who took resources away from building projects, and the power struggle led to the collapse of the Old Kingdom
    - Snefru was deified during the 12th Dynasty,
    - He is believed to have been buried in the 'red' pyramid at Dahshur, breaking with the tradition of Pharaohs being laid to rest at the burial area at Saqqara.
    - Many succeeding Pharaohs in later dynasties built their mortuary complexes near Snefru's site.
    Successor:Son Khufu out of Hetepheres 1

    Photos: Meidum Pyramid