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  • Ramses 3

  • Ramses 3 Rule:20th Dynasty: 1186-1155 BC
    Predecessor:Father Setnakhte
    Nomen:Birth name: Ramses: Ra has fashioned Him
    Praenomen:Throne name: Usermmatre-Meryamun: Powerful is the justice of Ra, beloved of Amun
    Consorts:- Isis Ta-Hemdjert
    - Queen Titi: She is buried in Valley of the Queens VQ 52, and had a multitude of important titles that are engraved in her tomb including "Mistress of the Two Lands" and "Chief Royal Wife"
    - Queen Tey
    Capital City:Avaris (Pi-Ramesse)
    Reign:- The most influential and important ruler of the 20th Dynasty, and the last Pharaoh to rule the country with a substantial authority.
    - During his reign Egypt was attacked three times by foreign.
    Twice the Libyans attacked, and one time the 'Sea People' who set out from the Aegean Islands and Asia Minor,
    Ramses 3 defeated his enemies in all the wars, but the victory against the 'Sea People' was only partial
    The heavy cost of these battles exhausted Egypt's treasury and contributed to the decline of the Egyptian Empire in Asia.

    Hekla 3 Eruption
    - The Hekla 3 eruption at Iceland, threw about 7.3 km3 of volcanic rock into the global atmosphere, preventing sunlight from reaching the ground and hampered global plant growth for two full decades
    This was a time when all old empires in the world were weakened by failed harvests
    It is recorded in the Great Harris Papyrus, that many people throughout the region were made homeless, and people were scattered by battle all at one time
    The powerful Hittite Empire disintegrated, and for a while Egypt also was threatened with extinction
    - Due to the consequences of this event, at the 28th year of his reign, Ramses 3 was unable to provide a constant supply of grain rations to the craftsmen of the Deir el-Medina community.
    A famine and the inability of the government to pay workers caused problems during the latter part of his reign, the workers on royal projects went on strike for the first time in Egyptian history

    Construction Projects

    • He built important additions to the Temple at Karnak
    • His mortuary temple at Medinet Habu is one of the largest temples in Egypt, it was inspired by the Ramesseum of Ramses 2, and included the Pharaoh's palace, administrative buildings and accommodations for priests.

    The Harem Conspiracy Papyrus, shows that there was a plot against his life instigated by Tey, one of his two principal wives, over whose son would inherit the throne. Isis's son, Ramses 4, was the eldest and the chosen successor by Ramses 3 rather than Tey's son Pentawere.
    A total of 38 people were sentenced to death, while Tey and her son Pentawere were deprived from having a proper funeral to prevent them from enjoying an afterlife
    It is not clear if Ramses 3 was in fact killed by the conspirators, and that his son Ramses 4, set up the tribunal.

    - Ramses 3's death marks the end of an era, and was the last of the great Pharaohs, Egypt began to suffer economic problems and was unable to exploit the revolution of the Iron Age because the country had no sources of ore.
    From this time onwards others would determine the destiny of the Mediterranean world. The Persians, Greeks and finally the Romans were to become the new powers
    Burial:Valley of Kings - KV 7
    Successor:Son Ramses 4 out of Isis Ta-Hemdjert
    Wikipedia:Ramses 3

    Photos: Temple of Ramses 3rd at Medinet Habu

    The area of this mortuary temple at Medinet Habu had been a sacred site since at least the time of Hatshepsut and Thutmosis 3rd, who built temples there. It was believed by the Egyptians to be the site where Amun appeared for the first time and was probably important from much earlier.
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