• Dynasties
  • New Kingdom
  • Ramses 2

  • Ramses Rule:19th Dynasty: 1279-1213 BC,
    Predecessor:Father Seti 1
    Nomen:Birth name: Ramses: Ra has fashioned him
    Praenomen:Throne name: Usermaatre-setepenre: The justice of Ra is powerful, chosen of Ra
    Consorts:- Ramses chief queen was the beautiful Nefertari. She died in the 24th year of his reign, and was placed in a beautifully decorated tomb in the Valley of the Queens in western Thebes.
    - Another wife was Istnofret, the mother of his heir Merenptah
    Capital City:Avaris (Pi-Ramesse)
    Reign: - Ramses began a series of wars against the Syrians, he fought to regain the territory in Africa and western Asia that Egypt had held during the 18th Dynasty.
    - His principal opponents were the Hittites, a powerful people of Asia Minor, against whom he waged a long war. The major battle of this war was fought in 1274 BC at Kadesh, in northern Syria, and showed Ramses as the winner, but neither power achieved a conclusive victory.
    in 1258 BC a peace treaty was signed with the Hittites, whereby the contested lands were divided, and Ramses agreed to marry the daughter of the Hittite King.
    - The remaining years of his rule were distinguished by the construction of monuments such as:
    1. The rock-hewn temple of Abu Simbel
    2. The great hypostyle hall in the temple of Amun at al-Karnak
    3. The mortuary temple at Thebes, known as The Ramesseum
    4. Completing his father Seti 1 temple of Abydos
    5. Major expansions in the Luxor Temple
      - The final period of his rule was characterized by great luxury, increased slavery, and the growth of a mercenary army, all of which led to the final decline of the New Kingdom

    - According to tradition, he was the Pharaoh of Egypt in the biblical Exodus story, but this view is contended by historical facts which point to Setnakhte as the most appropriate candidate
    Burial:- He was first buried in the Valley of Kings at KV 7
    - Then in the 20th Dynasty he was reburied in Deir el Bahri cache
    - In 1995 his family mausoleum was discovered, the largest tomb ever found in Egypt in which the sons of Ramses 2 were buried. He had as many as 100 children of whom about 50 of his 52 sons are thought to be buried there.
    Successor:Son Merenptah out of Istnofret
    Wikipedia:Ramses 2

    Photos: Temple of Ramses 2nd at Abydos