- This period is characterized by Egypt's military involvement and expansion in Syria and Palestine
- In Arts, monumental temples were erected in Thebes and Upper Egypt
- Amun High Priests and military leaders gained enormous power, which in the end
challenged the pharaonic rule, and led to the collapse of the State and the division of the country
18th Dynasty (1550-1292 BC)
- Ahmose expelled the Hyksos
- Capital city in Thebes
- Thutmose 3 began the age of conquest - Egypt became a world power.
- The Amarna revolution by Akhenaten - worship of Aten and Capital city moved to Akhetaten
- Theban counter-revolution - Religion restored
- Horemheb appointed his military commander Ramses 1 as heir, who founded the 19th Dynasty
- Pharaohs of the 18th Dynasty
19th Dynasty (1292-1187 BC)
- Ramses 1 moved the capital city to Avaris (Pi-Ramesse) and the cult of Seth regained importance
- Seti 1 recaptured territories lost under Akhenaten.
- Ramses 2 fought in Battle of Kadesh in 1274 BC
- Ramses 2 signed peace treaty with Hittites in 1258 BC
- Construction of monumental temples
- Merenptah moved the Capital city to Memphis
- When Merenptah died both his sons Seti 2 and Amenmesse (the Biblical Moses) contended for the throne
- Setnakhte the Exodus Pharaoh expelled the Asiatics and founded the 20th Dynasty
- Amenmesse (Moses) founded the new Hebrew religion?, based on the cult of Amun while demonizing the cult of Seth which was embraced by his enemies
- Pharaohs of the 19th Dynasty
20th Dynasty (1190-1069 BC)
- Capital city moved back to Avaris (Pi-Ramesse)
- Ramses 3 repulses invasion of "Sea People" and Libyan invasions. He is considered the last great Egyptian Pharaoh.
- Famine due to Hekla Eruption, civil unrest and official corruption, started at the end of Ramses 3 reign
- After Ramses 3 the empire began to disintegrate
- Systematic robbing of royal tombs especially in the reigns of Ramses 9 and Ramses 11.
- During the reign of Ramses 11 the High Priest of Amun at Thebes became the effective ruler of Upper Egypt
- Pharaohs of the 20th Dynasty
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