This period is characterized by the constant foreign threats and invasions from Assyrians, Babylonians and Persians
25th Dynasty (752-656 BC)
- Reunification of Egypt under Nubian Pharaoh Piye, who invaded and took control of Egypt
- This Dynasty is referred to as the Kushite Dynasty, and was ruled by a series of Pharaohs from Nubia.
- Shabaka moved Capital city from Napata to Thebes
- Starting from the reign of Taharqa onwards, the Pharaohs of this Dynasty were driven back into Nubia by Assyrians and 26th Dynasty Saite Pharaohs
- Assyrian invasion of lower Egypt during the reign of Taharqa In 663 BC, Taharqa withdraws to Napata.
- Pharaohs of the 25th Dynasty
26th Dynasty (664 - 525 BC)
- Native Egyptian Dynasty
- This Dynasty is referred to as the Saite Dynasty
- Capital city Sais in Lower Egypt,
- Psamtek 1 and his successors attempted to reassert Egyptian power in the Near East, but were driven back by the Babylonians
- Apries was able to hold back Babylonian attempts to conquer Egypt,
- In 525 BC Egypt got conquered by Cambyses of Persia at the battle of Pelusium.
- Persian King Cambyses 2 carried Psamtek 3 to Susa (Persia) in chains
- Pharaohs of the 26th Dynasty
- Necho 1
- Psamtek 1
- Nekau 2
- Psamtek 2
- Psamtek 3
- Necho 1
27th Dynasty (525-404 BC)
- Persians ruled Egypt with an iron hand
- Construction of canal connecting the Nile with the Red Sea
- Pharaohs of the 27th Dynasty
- Darius 1
- Xerxes 1
- Artaxerxes 1
- Xerxes 2
- Darius 2
- Artaxerxes 2
28th Dynasty (404-398 BC)
- Amyrtaeus expelled of the Persians in 404 BC
- Amyrtaeus killed by successor Nepherites 1 of Mendes in 398 BC
- Pharaohs of the 28th Dynasty
- Amyrtaeus404-398 BC
29th Dynasty (398-380 BC)
- Capital city Mendes, the capital of the 16th Lower Egyptian Nome of Kha
- Psammuthes was overthrown by Hakoris, who claimed to be the grandson of Nepherites 1.
- Hakoris successfully resisted Persian attempts to conquer Egypt
- Nepherites 2 succeeded his father Hakoris, but was unable to keep hold on his inheritance, and was deposed and killed by Nectanebo 1 within the same year.
- Pharaohs of the 29th Dynasty
- Nepherites 1
398 - 393 BC
- Nepherites 2
- Nepherites 1
30th Dynasty (380-343 BC)
- Nectanebo 1 successfully defended his kingdom from Persian conquest
- Capital city Sebennytus, Delta
- Teos invaded Persian territories in Syria, but during this campaign he was deposed by his grandson Nectanebo 2.
- During the reign of Nectanebo 2 in 343 BC, Egypt was conquered by Persians,
- Nectanebo 2 fled to Nubia, where he found refuge at the court of King Nastesen of Napata.
- This marked the beginning of the Second Persian rule and the end of native Egyptian rule, all the following dynasties were foreigners.
- Pharaohs of the 30th Dynasty