Comparison between Hyksos and Vandals
|Origins and Timeline||- A group of Semitic people who settled in Lower Egypt, during the Second Intermediate Period
- They settled in the country with no major battle, just a steady influx of foreigners who achieved power while retaining their own cultural differences.
- They rose to power in 1700 BC, and ruled Lower Egypt for about 125 years, forming the 15th and 16th Dynasties of Egypt, (c. 1674?1550 BC)
- They built their fortified Capital city Avaris in Lower Egypt
- Their chief deity was Seth, whom they identified with an Asiatic storm god
- They never ruled Egypt completely, their expansion in south in Upper Egypt was stopped by the Thebean nobility, who eventually expelled them and initiated the New Kingdom
|- The Vandals were an Eastern Germanic tribe of unknown origin
- In 406 AD. they crossed the ice-bound Rhine, and started raiding the Roman Empire
- In 439 Carthage fell in their hand, giving them a major naval base from which to raid the Western Mediterranean.
- In 533, the Eastern Roman Emperor Justinian sent Belisarius to invade the Vandal Kingdom, the great general destroyed it utterly, and ended the Vandal nightmare
|Contributions||- Minor Arts flourished with improvements in pottery arising from the introduction of improved potter's wheels
- Textiles and linen improved, with the development of the vertical loom.
- the Hyksos introduced developments in horse and chariots, composite bows, improved battle axes, advanced fortification techniques and bronze weapons
- One of the greatest contribution of the Hyksos was the preservation of the Edwin Smith Surgical Papyrus and the Rhind Mathematical Papyrus, by Apophis who commissioned recopying of ancient texts to prevent them from being lost
|- The Vandals made no artistic or intellectual contributions of any kind. In fact they sacked all art forms, with a senseless destruction attitude
- They were a primary cause for the final collapse of the Western Roman Empire, and the beginning of the Dark Ages
|Cultural Adaptation||- The Hyksos dynasties became Egyptian foreigners who were tolerated, but not truly accepted, by their Egyptian subjects, they adopted Egyptian customs and forms of art||- In the end, the Vandals amounted to nothing more than raiders and plunderers.
- Unlike the Hyksos, they proved unable to put down roots and enjoy the fruits of the lands they had conquered
|Lasting Legacy||- The rule of the Hyksos resulted in a period of peace and prosperity.
- Although they were foreign invaders, their contributions to Egyptian technology and warfare, paved the way to the New Kingdom, ancient Egypt's golden age
- Because of Egypt's previous isolation from the outside world, cultural and technological growth were often stagnant, until the Hyksos broke this tradition
|- The Vandals are perhaps best known for their sack of Rome in 455.
- They left barely a trace behind, it was all vanity