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Egyptian Dynasties and Kingdoms

Dynastic Period Images Timeline
Pre-dynastic Period: c 25000-3000 BC
Tools and artifacts indicate that humans lived in the Nile valley about 250,000 years ago when the region was a green grassland. Throughout most of its pre-dynastic history Egypt encompassed a multiplicity of settlements which gradually became small tribal kingdoms
Early Dynasty: Early Dynasty c.4000-2680 BC
The formative stage of the Ancient civilization, the entire culture would remain virtually unchanged for the next 3000 years.
Pharaoh Menes united Upper and Lower Egypt, into a single kingdom, and made Memphis his capital, this important event marked the beginning of the dynastic period of Egypt
Old Kingdom: Old Kingdom 2650-2150 BC
This period is characterized by the pyramid construction, including the Saqqara and Giza necropolis. By the end of the 6th Dynasty, small provincial principalities emerged to challenge Pharaonic power.
First Intermediate Period: 2150-2060 BC
The government crumbles and civil war breaks out as several rival kingdoms fight for control of Egypt.
Middle Kingdom: Middle Kingdom 2055-1991 BC
Mentuhotep 2 re-established political and social order, and pyramid construction was continued for the last time in Egyptian history,
During this historical period, Asian foreigners started to settle in the Delta, their numbers increased rapidly in large communities, and their leaders became local governors in their own rights
Second Intermediate Period: 1800-1550 BC
Division of Egypt in 13th and 14th Dynasties led to Hyksos invading Egypt in 1674 BC, Egyptians learned about bronze, new weapons, and horse-drawn chariots from invaders
New Kingdom: New Kingdom 1550-1069 BC
Egypt's military involvement and expansion in Syria and Palestine, and the increase in power of the Amun High Priests which at the end led to the division and collapse of the State
Third Intermediate Period: 1069-752 BC
Economic troubles and civil wars weaken Egypt. There are up to 4 Pharaohs ruling different parts of Egypt at the same time.
Late Kingdom: Late Kingdom 752-343 BC
This period is charaterized by the constant foreign threats from Assyrians, Babylonians and Persians During the reign of Nectanebo 2, Egypt was conquered by Persians, this marked the end of native Egyptian rule, all the following dynasties were foreigners.
Second Persian Period: 343-332 BC
The Persians defeated the Egyptians and Ochus became ruler over Egypt founding the 31st Dynasty.
Ptolemaic Period: Ptolemaic Period 332-30 BC
Invasion by te forces of Alexander the Great brought an end to Persian rule.
After the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC, his commander Ptolemy 1 Soter founded the Ptolemaic State in Egypt, which became one of the great powers of the Hellenistic world.
The Ptolemaic line ended with the suicide of Cleopatra in 30 BC, and Egypt was reduced to a Roman province

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By Ayman Fadl - Copyright © 2001-2014