- Historians divide Egyptian civilization into four Periods, the Old, Middle, New, and the Late Kingdoms
- These eras are separated from each another by, respectively, the First, Second, and Third Intermediate periods.
- During these Intermediate periods, political divisions and weak rulers fragmented the central government and disrupted the administrative authority of the country.
Egyptian Dynasties and Kingdoms
|Pre-dynastic Period:||c 25000-3000 BC|
Tools and artifacts indicate that humans lived in the Nile valley about 250,000 years ago when the region was a green grassland. Throughout most of its pre-dynastic history Egypt encompassed a multiplicity of settlements which gradually became small tribal kingdoms
|Early Dynasty:||c.4000-2680 BC|
The formative stage of the Ancient civilization, the entire culture would remain virtually unchanged for the next 3000 years.
Pharaoh Menes united Upper and Lower Egypt, into a single kingdom, and made Memphis his capital, this important event marked the beginning of the dynastic period of Egypt
|Old Kingdom:|| 2650-2150 BC|
This period is characterized by the pyramid construction, including the Saqqara and Giza necropolis. By the end of the 6th Dynasty, small provincial principalities emerged to challenge Pharaonic power.
|First Intermediate Period:|| 2150-2060 BC|
The government crumbles and civil war breaks out as several rival kingdoms fight for control of Egypt.
|Middle Kingdom:||2055-1991 BC|
Mentuhotep 2 re-established political and social order, and pyramid construction was continued for the last time in Egyptian history,
During this historical period, Asian foreigners started to settle in the Delta, their numbers increased rapidly in large communities, and their leaders became local governors in their own rights
|Second Intermediate Period:||1800-1550 BC|
Division of Egypt in 13th and 14th Dynasties led to Hyksos invading Egypt in 1674 BC, Egyptians learned about bronze, new weapons, and horse-drawn chariots from invaders
|New Kingdom:||1550-1069 BC|
Egypt's military involvement and expansion in Syria and Palestine, and the increase in power of the Amun High Priests which at the end led to the division and collapse of the State
|Third Intermediate Period:||1069-752 BC|
Economic troubles and civil wars weaken Egypt. There are up to 4 Pharaohs ruling different parts of Egypt at the same time.
|Late Kingdom:||752-343 BC|
This period is charaterized by the constant foreign threats from Assyrians, Babylonians and Persians During the reign of Nectanebo 2, Egypt was conquered by Persians, this marked the end of native Egyptian rule, all the following dynasties were foreigners.
|Second Persian Period:||343-332 BC|
The Persians defeated the Egyptians and Ochus became ruler over Egypt founding the 31st Dynasty.
|Ptolemaic Period:||332-30 BC|
Invasion by te forces of Alexander the Great brought an end to Persian rule.
After the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC, his commander Ptolemy 1 Soter founded the Ptolemaic State in Egypt, which became one of the great powers of the Hellenistic world.
The Ptolemaic line ended with the suicide of Cleopatra in 30 BC, and Egypt was reduced to a Roman province