Amenmesse - The Biblical Moses
- There was no "real" Exodus as portrayed in the BIble, that is fiction, but historical "kernels", attested by archaeology might give a clue to some events, which were later transformed into the Exodus story
The Egyptian records and common sense logic are innocent of dates mentioned in the Bible
The miracles and plagues described in the Bible can not be interpreted literally, but we can only conclude one thing: an Exodus might have occured during a decline of central authority and economical conditions, seeking a better life elsewhere
Any dating before the New Kingdom is discredited due to the fact that the bible mentions elements and locations not present before, such as chariots, citty of Ramses, oxen and Asiatic slaves (the Hyksos were rulers not slaves)
Thus the late 19th Dynasty and the collapse of the bronze age might be correct timing for the Exodus story, if it ever happened in the first place
The only recorded internal turmoil during the New Kingdom involving Asiatics occurs at the end of the 19th Dynasty, a possible leader for such a turmoil is Amenmesse
- Amenmesse might be (Amen Moses) the son of Takhat and Merenptah. A member of the Egyptian royal family who was later transformed into a Hebrew by the Jewish people in explanation of his position as their deliverer from slavery and founder of their religion.
In the biblical account Moses father was Amram, apparently a corruption of Amun Ra, the putative father of all of the kings of Egypt, and in this case the Nomen of the king "Amenmesse: Born to Amun"
Manetho account about chosing of his nickname: He also communicated that his desire to his namesake Amenophis (son of Amun), and one that seemed to partake of a divine nature, both as to wisdom and the knowledge of futurities, for this namesake of his told him that he might see the gods
His birth was apparently transformed into a religious ceremony, similar to the later ritual of baptism, in which the son of Amun Ra was discovered in the Nile and taken into the royal house, to explain that a child of a terrestrial woman could none the less also be the son of God
- Manetho account says: King Amenophis (Amenmesse or Moses) was desirous to become a spectator of the gods, as had Orus (Akhenaten) one of his predecessors in that kingdom, desired the same before him
- After the death of Merenptah's both Amenmesse and Seti 2 claimed the throne, Seti 2 seems controlling Upper (south) Egypt and Amenmesse controlling Lower (north) Egypt
- Seti 2 was initially ousted from power in Upper Egypt and forced to flee with his son Siptah to the king of Ethiopia. Amenmesse (Amen Moses) reigned over Egypt while Seti 2 was exiled
Seti 2 had previously started construction of his tomb at Thebes, but Amenmesse ordered the desecration of his unfinished tomb KV 13
During his control of Upper Egypt Amenmesse commissioned the construction of a chapel at Deir el-Medina, and quartzite statues in the Hypostyle Hall at Karnak
Exodus 2: The killing of the Egyptian overseer by Amenmesse (Moses)
Papyrus Salt 124 in the British Museum records the following story:
"Neferhotep was one of the two chief workmen of the Deir el-Medina necropolis, was attacked by Paneb a slave
Neferhotep then complained of the attacks upon himself to the vizier who ordered a severe punishment for the slave Paneb
Paneb, however, then successfully brought a complaint before Amenmesse (the king's name is written as 'Mose'/'Msy' in the document),
whereupon the latter decided to dismiss the vizier from office and ordered the killing of Neferhotep
Certainly it wa very strange that a Pharaoh will order the killing of an Egyptian overseer and dismiss a vizier, while protecting a slave!!, the Bible possibly recorded this same story in a
slightly different version in Exodus 2:
2:11 And it came to pass in those days, when Moses was grown, that he went out to his brethren, and looked on their burdens: and he spied an Egyptian smiting an Hebrew, one of his brethren.
2:12 And he looked this way and that way, and when he saw that there was no man, he slew the Egyptian, and hid him in the sand.
2:13 And when he went out the second day, behold, two men of the Hebrews strove together: and he said to him that did the wrong, Wherefore smitest you your fellow?
2:14 And he said, Who made you a prince and a judge over us? intendest you to kill me, as you killedst the Egyptian? And Moses feared, and said, Surely this thing is known.
The bible account states the fact that Moses was a prince and member in the Egyptian royal family. However why should a prince in ancient Egypt flee the country for killing an ordinary man?.sure his escape has nothing to do with this incident,
But his escape is more likely rather a result of a power struggle for the throne, while this unimportant killing event was used for polishing Amenmesse's pulic image amongst the Asiatics
- Seti 2 began to re-conquer Egypt, and returned to Thebes in triumph and ordered the restoration of his own damaged tomb KV13
Amenmesse had began the construction of his own tomb in KV10 in the Valley of Kings, Seti 2 revenged over Amenmesse by completely destroying the tomb erasing al references to his name.
- Seti 2 then completes his return to Lower (north) Egypt and expels Amenmesse (Moses), how is forced to flee to Midian (Timna in the Eastern borders of Sinai)
In the safety of Midian, he went about his life in what we can imagine was the expectation that at some point in time to regain his power in the Nile Valley. Amenmesse (Moses) spends 20 years in this wilderness writing, refining, and promulgating the law based on the cult of the "hidden one" god Amun while demonizing the cult of his enemy Seti 2, and the ancient god of the desert Seth became equated to Satan
- After the death of Seti 2 there was a period of chaos, his First born child Siptah suffered from polio "The 10th Plague" and died
Amenmesse tried to persuade Chancellor Bay into reinstalling his authority, but the plan fails and Bay is recorded to have been executed for being "A traitor"
- Setnakhte comes to power after the short reign of Tawosret. It was revealed in the Bible that during Moses' absence, the Pharaoh of the Oppression (Seti 2) had died, and been replaced by the Pharaoh of the Exodus (Setnakhte)
- He decided to march to Egypt gathering with him Asiatics slaves working in copper mines, persuading them that they will gain their freedom in his new kingdom and no longer work as slaves
Manetho records this event: "But when these men were gotten into Typhos city, and found the place fit for a revolt ....and they took their oaths that they would be obedient to him(their ruler) in all things. He then, in the first place, made this law for them, that they should neither worship the Egyptian gods, nor should abstain from any one of those sacred animals which they have in the highest esteem, but kill and destroy them all; that they should join themselves to nobody but to those that were of this confederacy.
He leads Asiatics into Egypt in an attempt to re-conquer his lost throne and moves west to the Delta fermenting chaos, the Papyrus Harris says about this period"The land of Egypt was in the hands of chiefs and of rulers of towns; one slew his neighbour, great and small. Other times having come after it, with empty years, Irsu (Moses) was with them as chief . He set plundering the people's possessions. They made gods like men, and no offerings were presented in the temples."
This plundering is also recorded in the bible Exodus 3: 3:22 But every woman shall borrow of her neighbor, and of her that sojourneth in her house, jewels of silver, and jewels of gold, and raiment: and you shall put them upon your sons, and upon your daughters; and you shall spoil the Egyptians.
Exodus 12:36 states: And the LORD gave the people favour in the sight of the Egyptians, so that they lent to them such things as they required. And they spoiled the Egyptians.
This clearly alleges a conspiracy by Amenmesse (Moses) to bribe Egyptian authorities to take over the throne of Egypt with Asiatic help, why should Moses bribe Egyptians and corrupt him if he intends to flee anyway?
Who can he aspire to take the throne is he wasn't a member of the royal family and a former prince from the begining?
- Finally Setnakhte the Pharaoh of the Exodus, sets a campaign to expel Amenmesse and his followers from the Delta region, chasing them into Sinai , but was unsuccessful in destroying them beyond the Red Sea.
Amenmesse then lost hope in recovering his reign in Egypt, and decided to start a new Kingdom in Canaan, taking advantage of the decline and weakness of the Pharaonic presence in the area.
Like any modern polititian he transforms the story of his escape from Egypt with a few hundred followers, into a successful premeditated Exodus of 600,000 people
- During his epic journey to the land of Israel, Amenmesse returns to Timna in the eastern borders of Sinai, where he finds Hebrew tribes worshiping Hathor in Seti 2 Temple.
Hathor personified the sky which gave birth to the sun-god each morning as a Golden Calf. Amenmesse decided to desecrate the temple and erect another shrine dedicated to the worship of the Bronze Snake
The Egyptians had run 12 copper mining camps in the Har Timna area, in which fragments of Midianite pottery were found, all date to the 19th-20th Dynasty.
These 12 camps are behind the notion that Israel in the Wilderness also had 12 tribal camps. possible locations in a mountainous setting of the area were identified for the famous Mount Sinai. For more details read:Mount Sinai
- Amenmesse then dies at the biblically assigned age of 60. In myth he becomes the first of the "judges" who ruled the people of Israel from the Exodus until the establishment of a proper monarchy under Saul.