• Arts
  • Architecture
  • The Ramesseum

  • Ramesseum
    Ramesseum Plan


    1. This is the mortuary complex of Ramses 2
    2. Located in the Theban necropolis in the west bank of the Nile
    3. Work on the project began shortly after the start of his reign and continued for 20 years.
    4. The remains of the complex include a royal palace and a large number of mud-brick granaries and storerooms, as well as a small temple dedicated to Ramses' 2 mother, Tuya, and wife, Nefertari.
    5. It was originally called the " house of millions of years of Usermaatra-setepenra that unites with Thebes in the domain of Amun "
    6. The temple was built too close to the Nile and the flood waters took their toll, destroying most of it.

    Architectural Layout of Main Temple

    1. First Entrance Pylons (destroyed in antiquity) - 60 meters wide
    2. First Court - Only a single colonnade remains of the First Courtyard.
    3. The royal palace, located left of the first court
    4. Second Pylons (only the north tower remains) - decorated with scenes commemorating the victory on the Battle of Kadesh, Ramses 2 is depicted larger than his men dashing into battle and the dead and wounded lying chaotically on the ground
      one block atop the first pylon records his pillaging to a city called "Shalem" which have been Jerusalem.
    5. Second Court - Much more complete then the first, it is flaked both left and right by pillared porticos with Osiride statues of Ramses 2. These statues show the Pharaoh being summoned to rebirth in anew life, tightly wrapped in a shroud with his arms crossed, holding his scepters. This court also contained two colossal statues of Ramses 2, known today as the Ozymandias, the fallen fragments to the right of the pylon are what remains of one of the largest free-standing statues in Egypt, an estimated 17 ? meters (taller than the Colossi of Memnon erected by Amenhotep 3 at his mortuary temple at Kawm el-Hitan).
      Three stairways rise to the portico or vestibule before the hypostyle hall
    6. Hypostyle hall - with 48 columns, 29 columns that are still standing and support the well preserved ceiling, the ones in the middle are shorter than those on the sides to allow light into the temple by transverse windows
      The interior walls show scenes of the capture of the Syrian fortress of Dapur and Ramses 2 receiving his scepters from Amun- Ra.
    7. Adjacent to the north of the hypostyle hall was a smaller temple dedicated to Ramses' 2 mother, Tuya, and his chief Queen Nefertari
    8. Second hypostyle hall - this small hall is known as "the hall of astronomy" where the first 12th month calendar is illustrated, it once had 8 papyrus bud columns decorated with scenes of offering, and scenes of the sacred boat of Amun Ra. On one wall Ramses 2 sitting under the tree of life, where the god Thoth and the goddess Seshat are recording his name, in the leaves of the tree, for long life.
    9. Two vestibules - in ruins
    10. The inner Sanctuary of Ramses 2 - dedicated to Amun -Ra and Ramses 2. now in ruins
    11. Annex rooms and library- in ruins