[an error occurred while processing this directive] Deir El Bahri [an error occurred while processing this directive]
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  • Deir El Bahri

  • photo of the Deir El Bahri temple facade
    Architecural drawing showing Deir El Bahri temple plan, with a list of main components
    Picture of a mummy found on the Deir El Bahri mummy cache
    Deir El Bahri is a complex of mortuary temples and a royal mummies cache located on the west bank of the Nile, opposite the city of Thebes. The first monument built at the site was the mortuary temple of Mentuhotep 2 of the 11th dynasty. During the Eighteenth dynasty, Amenhotep 1 and Hatshepsut also built mortuary temples at the site.

    The Mortuary Temple Of Queen Hatshepsut

    1. This impressive structure dominates the steep half-circle of cliffs, guarding the entrance to the Valley of the Kings
      - Designed and implemented by Senemut, the royal steward and architect of Hatshepsut
    2. Dedicated to Amun
    3. Her successor Thutmose 3 defaced Hatshepsut's Mortuary temple at Deir el Bahri and her other monuments, selectively removing her name or replacing it with their own.

    Architectural Layout

    1. An avenue of sphinxes leads to the temple's lower court
    2. Lower Court
    3. Ramp - Crouching lions are carved at the bottom of the ramp leading to the second court
    4. Middle Court - In the second court there was once a brick temple dedicated to Amenhotep 1 and Ahmose-Nefertari, but it was destroyed when Hatshepsut's architect began construction of the new temple.
    5. Anubis Chapel - on the north side of the middle court, the chapel has scenes showing Tuthmose 3 worshipping Seker, and figures of many gods, mainly Anubis, Amun and Osiris In one scene Hatshepsut makes offerings to Anubis
    6. Punt Colonnade - Relieves on the north side of the court show the queen's expedition from the Red Sea to Punt. The precise location of Punt is not known, but it is thought to have been probably on the east coast of Africa
    7. Birth Colonnade - Relief's show Hatshepsut's divine birth
    8. Ramp - flanked by Horus falcons
    9. Upper Court - The pillars in the portico in front of the third court were decorated with Osiris statues of the queen
    10. Sanctuary of the sun - shows scenes of gods Harmachis, any other gods near to this altar were destroyed by Akhenaten (Harmachis was as a form of the Aten ) There are also scenes of Tuthmose I and Queen Senseneb making offerings to Anubis. in the middle is a doorway which leads to the inner sanctuary of Amun
    11. Sanctuary of Amun - the focus of the temple which was cut deep into the rock of the mountain, this would have been the resting place for the boat of Amun during the 'Valley Festival '. In here there are various scenes of offerings to Amun, Hatshepsut and her daughter Raneferu kneel before the barque of Amun. Hatshepsut, Thutmose 3 and the Princess Raneferu sacrifice to the barque of Amun - Ra. The most inner room of the Sanctuary was re-built in Ptolemaic Period and scenes honor the deified Imhotep
    12. Hathor Chapel -. At the very end of the southern portico is a Chapel of Hathor with many relieves of Hatshepsut being licked or suckled by the goddess in the form of a cow. Beautiful Hathor -headed pillars line the central part of the hall and lead the way to the sanctuary area of the chapel cut into the hillside at the back.

    Deir El Bahri Royal Mummies Cache

    From antiquity, treasure-filled tombs in the Valley of the Kings were potential targets for theft, Almost all of the tombs have been ransacked, By the 21st Dynasty priests most likely to prevent further desecration and looting reburied the Pharaohs of the 18th, 19th and 20th dynasty in Deir el Bahri
    Tomb TT320 is located next to Deir el-Bahri, contained an extraordinary cache of mummified remains and funeral equipment of more than 50 Pharaohs, queens, royals and various nobility including Thutmose 1, Thutmose 2, Thutmose 3, Ramses 1, Seti 1, Ramses 2, and Ramses 9. In a separate room were found 21st dynasty Pharaoh Pinedjum I, Pinedjum 2, and Siamun. Later on, a cache of 153 reburied mummies of the priests themselves were also found in a tomb at the site.
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