Comparison Between Egyptian and Japanese Architecture
|Criteria||Egyptian Architecture||Ancient Japanese Architecture|
|Early Development||Architectural style developed during the Pre-Dynastic Period c. 4000 BC.||Early forms of Japanese architecture shared a close relationship with Korean architecture between 665-57 BC. The distinct Japanese architecture was fully developed during the fifth century A.D.|
|Function||Religious beliefs of eternal life, resulted in an impressive sepulchral architecture, tomb building started as soon as a Pharaoh was named, and continued throughout his life until his death. Massive, static, and serene architecture emerged from the need to obtain stability in stone walls
||Castles, aristocratic mansions, teahouses, Buddhist temples, and Shinto shrines.|
|Architectural Style||Focal Points
|Materials||- Building stones - were used in monumental buildings
- Wood - rarely used as a building material, since there are no natural resources of wood in Egypt
- Bricks - sun dried bricks were used extensively in dwellings and small buildings, few examples have therefore survived time.
|- Extensive use of wood
- Stones and bricks rarely used - there is little stone for building or carving in Japan.
|Durability||Monumental temples, tombs and pyramids made of durable stones have survived thousand of years||Japanese architecture is best exemplified by the shrines of the Shinto. These shrines were customarily destroyed every 20 years and then rebuilt in an exact replica of the previous shrine.|
|Techniques||Wooden construction elements|
Old Kingdom Architecture
Archtecture is entirely sepulchral, chiefly the tombs of monarchs and nobles.
- Mastabas - the oldest remaining form of sepulcher; it is a rectangular, flat-roofed structure with sloping walls containing chambers built over the mummy pit.
- Old Kingdom Pyramids - The pyramid of a sovereign was begun as soon as he ascended the throne, The Giza pyramid complex, are the best known.
- Houses were constructed from mud bricks, this method of construction of secular buildings continued through out the entire history of Egypt
Middle Kingdom Architecture
Architecture remains mainly sepulchral
- Beni Hasan - Tombs tunneled out of the rock cliffs on the west bank of the Nile
- Middle Kingdom Pyramids - Less elaborate than in the Old Kingdom pyramids
- Temples construction began at Thebes (Karnak and Abu Simbel) - but all the temples of The Middle Kingdom were subject to massive reconstruction in the New Kingdom. There are no surviving unaltered examples
New Kingdom Architecture
- "Rock sculptured" - Abu Simbel
- "Hypostyle Hall" - Amun Karnak | Abydos | Luxor Temple
- "Mortuary" - Deir El Bahri and The Ramesseum
- Sepulchral architecture is present in the Valley of the Kings - tombs are excavated from rock.
A revolution in Egyptian Architecture: public buildings were erected for the first time.